Evidence for the effectiveness of glucosamine as a dietary supplement is mixed. In the United States, it is eular textbook on rheumatic diseases pdf free download of the most common dietary supplements used by adults that is neither a vitamin nor a mineral.
Oral glucosamine is a dietary supplement and is not a pharmaceutical drug. It is illegal in the US to market any dietary supplement as a treatment for any disease or condition. Commonly sold forms of glucosamine are glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, and N-acetylglucosamine. Of the three commonly available forms of glucosamine, only glucosamine sulfate is given a “likely effective” rating for treating osteoarthritis.
Glucosamine, along with commonly used chondroitin, is not routinely prescribed to treat people who have symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee, as there is insufficient evidence that this treatment is helpful. As is common with heavily promoted dietary supplements, the claimed benefits of glucosamine are based principally on clinical and laboratory studies. Clinical studies are divided, with some reporting relief from arthritic pain and stiffness, while higher quality studies report no benefit above placebo. There is no evidence to date that consumption of glucosamine by sport participants will prevent or limit joint damage after injury.
One clinical study over three years showed that glucosamine in doses of 1500 mg per day is safe to use. Adverse effects may include stomach upset, constipation, diarrhea, headache, and rash. There are case reports of people who have chronic liver disease and a worsening of their condition with glucosamine supplementation. More high-quality clinical research is needed before recommending glucosamine in pregnancy.
Since glucosamine is usually derived from the shells of shellfish, it may be unsafe for those with shellfish allergy. Another concern has been that the extra glucosamine could contribute to diabetes by interfering with the normal regulation of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway, but several investigations found no evidence that this occurs. Glucosamine is naturally present in the shells of shellfish, animal bones, bone marrow, and fungi. D-Glucosamine is made naturally in the form of glucosamine-6-phosphate, and is the biochemical precursor of all nitrogen-containing sugars.
Most glucosamine is manufactured by processing chitin from the shells of shellfish including shrimp, lobsters, and crabs. Glucosamine was first prepared in 1876 by Georg Ledderhose by the hydrolysis of chitin with concentrated hydrochloric acid. In the United States, glucosamine is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for medical use in humans. In most of Europe, glucosamine is approved as a medical drug and is sold in the form of glucosamine sulfate. In this case, evidence of safety and efficacy is required for the medical use of glucosamine and several guidelines have recommended its use as an effective and safe therapy for osteoarthritis. In 2013, without admitting fault, manufacturer Rexall Sundown, Inc. 2 million to settle consumer claims related to the wording of certain claims on the packaging of glucosamine bottles sold at Costco under the Kirkland label.
In August 2012, a class action lawsuit was filed in New York claiming that 21st Century Healthcare, Inc. Since glucosamine is a precursor for glycosaminoglycans, and glycosaminoglycans are a major component of cartilage, research has focused on the potential for supplemental glucosamine to beneficially influence cartilage structure and alleviate arthritis. Two studies measured the concentrations of glucosamine in the synovial fluid and plasma after oral administration of glucosamine sulfate to both healthy volunteers and people with osteoarthritis. In the first study, glucosamine sulfate was given to healthy volunteers in doses of 750, 1500 or 3000 mg once daily. You can help by adding to it. Some studies have shown efficacy of glucosamine supplementation for dogs with osteoarthritis pain, particularly in combination with other nutraceuticals like chondroitin while others have not.
The use of glucosamine in equine medicine exists, but one meta-analysis judged extant research too flawed to be of value in guiding treatment of horses. A number of studies have measured the bioavailability of glucosamine after oral administration to horses. A three-month trial of an oral dosage regime of a commercial preparation of glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate and methylsulfonylmethane was performed in veteran horses with no effect on gait stiffness, with exercise alone in the control group being effective. Glucosamine supplementation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in athletes: a randomized placebo-controlled trial”. Complementary and alternative medicines for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and fibromyalgia”. Hepatotoxicity associated with glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in patients with chronic liver disease”. Is glucosamine safe in patients with seafood allergy?
The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Kirkland Signature Extra Strength Glucosamine with MSM”. Another vegetarian glucosamine launched in US”. Hexosamines, insulin resistance, and the complications of diabetes: current status”. The effect of glucosamine-chondroitin supplementation on glycosylated hemoglobin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial”.