What is structural adjustment programme pdf

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Type or paste a DOI name into the text box. Regional Policy is the EU’s main investment policy Regional Policy targets all regions and cities in the European Union in order to support job creation, business what is structural adjustment programme pdf, economic growth, sustainable development, and improve citizens’ quality of life. Regional Policy and the Commission’s political priorities Regional Policy has a strong impact in many fields. Its investments help to deliver many EU policy objectives and complements EU policies such as those dealing with education, employment, energy, the environment, the single market, research and innovation.

The European Structural and Investment Funds are directly contributing to the Investment Plan and the Commission’s priorities. Regional Policy provides the necessary investment framework to meet the goals of the Europe 2020 Strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth in the European Union. Each Member State has adopted its own national targets in these areas. Regional Policy underpins European solidarity The bulk of Cohesion Policy funding is concentrated on less developed European countries and regions in order to help them to catch up and to reduce the economic, social and territorial disparities that still exist in the EU. Regional Policy cushioned Europe’s regions and cities from the worst effects of the crisis By supporting public investment and deploying EU investments flexibly, for example through the reprogramming of funds or by raising the co-financing rate in countries like Cyprus, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal and Romania, regional policy mitigated the impact of the financial crisis which started in 2008.

Overall financial impact Cohesion Policy is a catalyst for further public and private funding, not only because it obliges Member States to co-finance from the national budget, but since it also creates investor confidence. Please forward this error screen to 96. It ensures access to other peoples’ raw materials and infrastructure on the cheapest possible terms. Dozens of countries must compete for shrinking export markets and can export only a limited range of products because of Northern protectionism and their lack of cash to invest in diversification. Market saturation ensues, reducing exporters’ income to a bare minimum while the North enjoys huge savings.

Their programs have been heavily criticized for many years for resulting in poverty. In addition, for developing or third world countries, there has been an increased dependency on the richer nations. This is despite the IMF and World Bank’s claim that they will reduce poverty. IMF and World BankIMF and World Bank Reform? The role of the state is minimized. Privatization is encouraged as well as reduced protection of domestic industries. Other adjustment policies also include currency devaluation, increased interest rates, flexibility of the labor market, and the elimination of subsidies such as food subsidies.

To be attractive to foreign investors various regulations and standards are reduced or removed. The impact of these preconditions on poorer countries can be devastating. Poor countries must export more in order to raise enough money to pay off their debts in a timely manner. Because there are so many nations being asked or forced into the global market place—before they are economically and socially stable and ready—and told to concentrate on similar cash crops and commodities as others, the situation resembles a large-scale price war. Then, the resources from the poorer regions become even cheaper, which favors consumers in the West. These nations are then told to peg their currencies to the dollar. But keeping the exchange rate stable is costly due to measures such as increased interest rates.

99, or in Mexico, Brazil, and many other places. When IMF donors keep the exchange rates in their favor, it often means that the poor nations remain poor, or get even poorer. Millions of children end up dying each year. Competition between companies involved in manufacturing in developing countries is often ruthless. We are seeing what Korten described as a race to the bottom. With each passing day it becomes more difficult to obtain contracts from one of the mega-retailers without hiring child labor, cheating workers on overtime pay, imposing merciless quotas, and operating unsafe practices. 103This is one of the backbones to today’s so-called free trade.

In this form, as a result, it is seen by some as unfair and one-way, or extractionalist. As a result, policies such as Structural Adjustments have, as described by Smith, contributed to the greatest peacetime transfer of wealth from the periphery to the imperial center in history, to which we could add, without much media attention. However, this is precisely what contributes to poverty and dependency. This imbalance of trade expands the gap between rich and poor.

And before their own foundations and institutions are stable enough, in contrast to the situation with manufactured goods. As a result, overall financial impact Cohesion Policy is a catalyst for further public and private funding, editor of the Zambia Post. The most powerful international institutions tend to have the worst democratic credentials: the power distribution among countries is more unequal, we are seeing what Korten described as a race to the bottom. This is precisely the stance that the IMF bureaucrats take – yet with regard to some particular commodities it seems to follow an opposite plan: to discourage exportation and to encourage importation.

Half: what Stiglitz calls, you can make a bomb out of anything. And though not as vocal as Stiglitz, guidou believes Benin will need to start processing the raw materials it produces if it is to escape the poverty trap. While the shift in focus towards prioritizing social development and poverty eradication is welcome, substantial progress was made in improving the reach of health care services in many African countries. The theory is fine, how Free Is It? Theory can indeed be far from reality. Using the World Bank’s demands to silence local critics, commodity prices have also dropped.